There is a credible risk that the relative peace in Northern Ireland will be compromised by republican and loyalist paramilitary organisations, who could exploit the instability of Brexit to further their own agendas. Despite the changes and positive developments in the years since the Good Friday Agreement, violence endures in Northern Ireland. As recently as December 2017, MI5 stated that Northern Ireland has the highest level of terrorist activity anywhere in Europe. One of the key perpetrators of the recent violence in NI is the New Irish Republican Army (NIRA). NIRA was formed in July 2012 following a merger with the Real IRA (RIRA), a group that rejected the Provisional IRA (PIRA)’s ceasefire in 1998, along with other smaller republican militant groups. Smaller, less active groups such as Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) and other dissident groups remain extant within NI, conducting sporadic violent attacks, often employing the use of small arms and improvised explosive devices (IEDs).