Post Incident Report (August 2019)
At approximately 10.30 MDT (16.30 GMT), a gunman opened fire on shoppers in a crowded Walmart located in east El Paso. At the time of reporting 22 people have died as a result of the shooting, 24 others suffered varying injuries. The victims include eight Mexican’s, 13 American’s and one German. El Paso shares a border with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and the Walmart store is located adjacent to the Ciesto Villa Mall which is a popular destination for El Paso residents and shoppers who make the journey from south of the border.
Reports suggest that the gunman used an AK-47 style assault rifle during the attack, a weapon that he had purchased legally and was able to carry into the store without raising suspicion owing to the state’s law of ‘open carry’. Armed officers attended the scene within six minutes of the attack occurring and began securing the area at 10.45. The gunman fled the scene in a vehicle, before surrendering to a motorcycle police officer at an intersection north of the Walmart store. Confessing to his role in the shooting at the scene, the gunman was later identified as Patrick Crusius, a 21 year-old resident of Allen, Texas.
Subsequent investigations revealed that Crusius had posted a four-page document titled ‘The Inconvenient Truth’ to the online message forum 8chan 20 minutes prior to the attack, having driven for 11 hours from Allen, a suburb of Dallas, Texas. The document, akin to a manifesto, contained praise for the 17 March 2019 attacks against Mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand and described the author’s subsequent attack as “a response to the Hispanic invasion of Texas”.
Crusius was charged with capital murder following his arrest, though at the time of reporting the US Department of Justice is treating the incident as a case of domestic terrorism, with federal firearm and hate crime charges being considered.
The El Paso attack occurred within 13 hours of another active shooter incident that took place in Dayton, Ohio. In that attack, the gunman was equipped with a high capacity rifle fed by a 100 round drum magazine, and a bullet proof vest. Targeting a popular nightlife location, the gunman was killed by police officers within 30 seconds of opening fire. Motives for that attack, in which nine people were killed and 27 injured, are still being investigated.
Crusius’ use of the online forum 8Chan is the latest in a developing trend of attackers motivated by extreme right-wing ideology finding common cause and a platform to share their views on the social media forum. Subject only to user moderation, this is the third time this year that active shooter incidents have been proceeded by an open declaration of intent and followed by celebration amongst anonymous contributors to the site’s message boards. The perpetrator of the 17 March attack against Mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand was a prominent member of discussion boards and posted a 73 page declaration of intent that included a link to a livestream of the attack on Facebook. On 27 April, a gunman opened fire on the Chabad of Poway synagogue near San Diego, California; killing one worshipper and injuring three others. Before the attack, the gunman uploaded a manifesto to 8Chan that espoused admiration for the Christchurch attack and support for the perpetrator of an attack against the Tree of life Synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in October 2018 that resulted in the deaths of 11 Jewish victims.
In the days since the El Paso attack, 8Chan has come under intense scrutiny and the site’s creator (who has since relinquished ownership) has called for the site to be shut down. Cloudfare, a company that provides infrastructure security for a host of web content, has withdrawn its support for the site. This has left it open to outside attack and, at the time of reporting, these attacks have rendered it disabled. 8Chan, however, is just one of a number of fora available for extremists to share their views. As recently as 28 July, a 19 year-old gunman opened fire at a food festival in Gilroy, California, killing three people and himself, after urging his Instagram followers to read a novel popular among white supremacists. Earlier this year, two gunmen were reported to have spent over a year planning their attack on the Escola Estadul Professor Raul Brazil School in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Reports suggest that this planning was assisted by members of another forum renowned for its association with far-right contributors, known as Dogolachan. The attack took place on 13 March, resulted in the deaths of 10 people (including 5 school children), and was applauded on Dogolchan.
Outside of mainstream social media sites, online fora such as 8Chan et al are subject to minimal regulation, contributed to anonymously and provide freedom of association for those holding extremist views across the world. Until recently, authorities attempting to combat extremism have focussed their attentions toward extremist Islam and, appropriately, the threat posed by jihadist groups such as Islamic State. Despite warnings from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) regarding the growing threat of online right wing extremism fuelling the intent of potential domestic terrorists, there has been a reticence to devote resources to the issue in the United States. Intense domestic and global scrutiny in the wake of the El Paso attack may serve to alter this.
On 5 August, President Donald Trump publicly referred to Crusius’ online activities in declaring that “our nation must condemn racism, bigotry and white supremacy”. The President, however, has been subject to criticism since the attack, with some blaming his strong anti-immigration rhetoric for legitimising the views of extremists and creating a hostile environment for America’s Hispanic communities. Many of El Paso’s residents identify as Hispanic, and a visit by the President to the city on 7 August was met with protests. Domestically, this is likely to be seized upon by political rivals as the country heads toward a Presidential election in 2020.
Internationally, the attack has prompted Mexico to break from recent diplomatic acquiescence with the United States. The Mexican Foreign Minister, Marcel Ebrard, cited Crusius’ targeting of the Hispanic community and the loss of eight Mexican citizens in declaring the attack as an act of terrorism against the Mexican-American community and Mexican nationals. As a result, Mexico is seeking to increase protection for its citizens in the United States. Whilst demanding a role in any investigation, there have been suggestions that the Mexican authorities may also seek Crusius’ extradition to stand trial south of the border. Whilst the United States and Mexico have a long standing bilateral extradition treaty, this request is unlikely to be granted in relation to a US citizen who is already facing charges for the same crime. In a bid to apply further pressure to the US, Ebrard also indicated that Mexico may seek to file a law suit against the vendor who sold Crusius the weapon he used in the attack. Similar lawsuits filed by US citizens in the wake of previous active shooter incidents have had limited success, suggesting that the value of any such challenge may be mostly symbolic.
US gun laws are often brought under intense scrutiny in the wake of such attacks, and diplomatic pressure from Mexico will serve to fuel debate north of the border that incites a passionate response from all sides of the debate. Studies suggest that support for stricter gun control tends to spike as the media focusses on the aftermath of attacks. Such spikes, however, tend to fade commensurate with the amount of air time given to the attack. Whilst the 2020 Presidential race may serve to embolden candidates who seek to utilise the current climate to push for stricter controls, any reform is likely to be incremental and subject to opposition despite an increased tempo of such incidents. Given such entrenched aversion to gun control reform, response to the attack may best be served by a focus on wider societal and political drivers behind the increasing threat of domestic and global right wing extremism.
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